Document Type : .


1 Associate Professor, Imam Sadiq University,

2 Ph.D. Candidate in Communication Sciences, Allameh Tabatab’i University (Corresponding Author),


With the development of media, the world entered a new phase in which media not only continued its increasing growth in terms of both technology and variety, but as a whole it turned into one of the central components of human societies. Over the past two decades, many thinkers in the field of communication have focused on media literacy as a key element whose public promotion can prevent many negative effects of media, increase the range of audience access to media, and turn the audience themselves into producers of communicative messages. Defined as a science whose aim is to regulate the relationship between the audience and media based on internalized norms, media literacy is a crucial factor to be considered when formulating a country’s media policy. Several models have been proposed for formulating media policies, among which the model developed by the European Commission is among the most comprehensive ones. The model is comprised of four components of media literacy, including access, use, critical understanding and communicative production. The present study employed the EC model in a documentary and analytical research methodology to examine components of media literacy in three important cultural and educational organizations in Iran: the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, the Ministry of Education, and the Artistic-Cultural Organization of Tehran Municipality. Results from the analysis of documents from the Ministry of Education revealed that the main focus was on use and on critical understanding, and that no policy was formulated for promoting communicative production. In the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, policy documents only addressed digital media and there were no policies developed for other type of media, including print and electronic media.


امیدعلی، میثم و سیدحسن حسینی (1391). «مروری انتقادی بر مهم‎ترین نظریه‎های تکنولوژی رسانه»، فصل‌نامۀ مطالعات میانرشتهای در رسانه و فرهنگ، س 2، ش 2.
باکینگهام، دیوید (1389). آموزش رسانهای؛ یادگیری، سواد رسانهای و فرهنگ معاصر، ترجمۀ حسین سرفراز، تهران: دانشگاه امام صادق(ع).
بصیریان جهرمی، حسین و رضا بصیریان جهرمی (1385). «درآمدی به سواد رسانه‎ای و تفکر انتقادی»، فصل‌نامۀ رسانه، س 17، شمارۀ پیاپی 68.
بنیاد ملی بازیهای رایانهای
حسین‎زاده، اکبر و مرتضی محمدی (1389). «سواد رسانه‎ای، ضرورت دنیای امروز»، کلیات کتاب ماه، ش 153.
سازمان فرهنگی هنری شهرداری تهران
سایت شورای عالی آموزشوپرورش
مرکز توسعۀ فنّاوری اطلاعات و رسانههای دیجیتال
Ananiadou, K.; and M. Claro (2009). 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 41, OECD Publishing.
Aufderheide, P (1993). A Report of the National Leadership Conference of Media Literacy, Aspen Institute Communications and Society Program, Washington D.C: Aspen Institute.
Celot, P. (2009). Study Assessment Criteria for Media Literacy Levels, Brussels: European Commission.
European Commission (2009). Media Literacy Study the Framework, Annex B for Study Assessment Criteria for Media Literacy Levels, Brussels.
European Commission (2011). Testing and Refining Criteria to Assess Media Literacy Levels in Europe, Final Report.
Horton, F.Woody (2007). Understanding Information Literacy: A Primer, UNESCO: Paris.
Kellner, D.; and J. Share (2007). Critical Media Literacy Is not an Option, Springer Science and Business Media, LLC.
Kubey, R. (2001). Media Literacy in the Information Age: Current Perspectives, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
Livingst, S. (2004). Adult Media Literacy: A Review of the Research Literature, London: Department of Media and Communication.
Livingsto, S. (2011). Media Literacy: Ambitions, Policies and Measures, London: Ofcom.
NAMLE )2001(. Alliance for a Media Literate America, Founding Declaration
NAMLE-Core Principles (2009). Core Principles of Media Literacy Education in the United States[Electronic Version], From
OFCOM (2008). What is Media Literacy? (Publication:
Oxstrand, B. (2009). Media Literacy Education: A Discussion about Media, Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, Education in the Western Countries, Europe and Sweden.
Potter, W. J. (2004). Theory of Media Literacy: A Cognitive Approach, London: Sage Publications.
Silverstone, R. (1999). Why Study the Media? London: Sage.
Taylor, R (2002). The Implemention of Media Literacy: An Analysis of the Media Literacy Curricula of Ontario,Canada, New South Wales, Australia, England: The University of Southern Mississippi.
Thoman, E.; and T. Jolls (2004). Media Literacy: A National Priority for a Changing World.
UNESCO-Paris Agenda (2007). The Paris Agenda, 12 Recommendations for Media Education, Retrieved. From